Jelena Bogojević, Miloš Nikolić, Tatjana Marković, Ana Ćirić, Dejan Marković



Twenty one essential oils (EOs) documented their significant antimicrobial effect with regard to our pre–set criterion of the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC ≤ 200 μL / mL) of EOs towards Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212 and or clinical isolates); the best effect MIC 0.4 μL / mL (approx. 0.26 μg / mL) achieved Satureja horvatii L. EO, while the EOs with the lowest antimicrobial efficacy were Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Achilea milefolium L., both with MIC s160.0 μg / mL. Analysis of the MIC values within the groups revealed that ATCC strain of E. faecalis is generally lower, ranging from 0.26 to 156 μg / mL, in comparison to those for clinical isolateswhich ranged from 10 to 160 μg / mL. Twelve 12 components that are common in EOs whith MIC s ≤ 200 μg / mL in testings towards both, the clinical  and  referent  strains  are  given  in  descending  order  according  to number of oils they are present in: trans–β–caryophyllene  (13) > myrcene (8)> α–pinene (8) > linalool (7) > p–cymene (7) > borneol (7) > geraniol (6) > camphene  (6) > limonene  (5) > 1,8– cineol  (5) > γ –terpinene  (5) > α–terpinene (4). Comparison of EO constituents reviled that only, geraniol and 1,8–cineol, contributed with ≥ 10 % to more than one EO (MIC 0.3–200 μg / mL) efficient against both E. faecalis strains. Thirteen components in 11 EOs with MIC ≤ 200 µg / mL towards ATCC 29212 were representative based on their contents in EOs: eugenol 82.9 % > thymol 63.7 % > hexadecanoic acid 47.8 % > menthol 46.6 % > cis–b–ocimene 44.2 % > geranial 42.1 % > trans–β–caryophyllene  40.8 % > citronellal  36.7 % > α–pinene  31.2 % > neral 30.5 % > α–eudesmol 22.4 % > citronellol 13.1 % > menthone 11.3 %. Following seven components, representative in 10 EOs with MIC ≤ 200 µg / mL towards clinical isolates, are presented in order of their contribution to EOs: phenylethyl alcohol 57.7 % > geranial 32.9 % > neral 22.2 % > p– cymene 20 % > carvacrol 14 % > α–pinene 11.5 % > linalool 11.4 %. Out of 21 highly efficient EOs selected in this study, six EOs proved to be the most efficient (MIC ≤ 30 μg / mL ); three oils in control of E.faecalis ATCC strain (Satureja horvatii, Mentha pulegium and Rosmarinus  officinalis) and other three  in control of E. faecalis clinical isolates (Leptospermum petersonii, Thymus algeriensis,  Thymus serpyllum).  Thymol is a major component  in three out of the six aforementioned most efficient EOs. The aim of our study was to investigate differences in efficacy of selected EOs that proved to possess great antimicrobial activity, towards the referent strain ATCC 29212 and clinical isolates of E. faecalis on, and to estimate which of their constituents might contribute to desired activity, as “markers compunds”.


Essential oil; Enterococcus faecalis; clinical isolates; ATCC 29212; antimicrobials

Full Text:



Contreras–Moreno, B. Z., Velasco, J. J., Rojas, J. D., Mendez, L. D., Celis, M.T. (2016). Antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Pimenta racemosa var. racemosa (Myrtaceae) leaves. Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research, Vol. 4, No. 6, 224–230.

Newman, D. J., & Cragg, G. M. (2012). Natural Products As Sources of New Drugs over the 30 Years from 1981 to 2010. Journal of Natural Products, Vol.75 No. 3, 311–335.

Marković T., Nikolić M., Glamočlija J., Ćirić A., Emerald M., Radanović D., Jeliazkov V., Soković M. (2016): Essential oils for the prevention and treatment of human opportunistic fungal diseases, In: Medicinal and Aromatic Crops: Production, Phytochemistry, and Utilization, Chapter 15: pg 247-277. ACS Symposium Series, Vol. 1218, American Chemical Society.

Ghribi, L., Ben Nejma, A., Besbes, M., Harzalla–Skhiri, F., Flamini, G., & Ben Jannet, H. (2016). Chemical Composition, Cytotoxic and Antibacterial Activities of the Essential Oil from the Tunisian Ononis angustissima L. (Fabaceae). Journal of Oleo Science, Vol. 65, No. 4, 339–345.

Marković T. (2011): Etarska ulja i njihova bezbedna primena. Institut za proučavanje lekovitog bilja „dr Josif Pančić“, Beograd, str. 1-287.

Van de Braak, S. A. A. J., and Leijten, G. C. J. J. (1994). Essential oils and oleoresins: a survey in the Netherlands and other major markets in the European Union. CBI, Centre for the Promotion of Imports from Developing Countries, Rotterdam, 116

Pichersky, E., Noel, J. P. & Dudareva, N. (2006) Biosynthesis of plant volatiles: Nature's diversity and ingenuity. Science, Vol. 311, No. 5762, 808–811.

Perricone M., Arace E., Corbo M. R., Sinigaglia M., Bevilacqua A. (2015). Bioactivity of essential oils: a review on their interaction with food components. Front. Microbiol. Vol. 6, No.76: 10.3389 /fmic b.2015.00076

Maguna FP, Romero AM, Garro OA, Okulik NB (2006) Actividad Antimicrobiana de un grupo de Terpenoides. Facultad de Agroindustrias, UNNE, Argentina. Comunicaciones Científicas y Tecnológicas en Internet. Resumen E–057, pp. 1–4. (http: / / /unnevieja /Web /cyt /cyt2006/08– Exactas /2006–E–057.pdf)

Vengerfeldt, V., Spilka, K., Saag, M., Preem, J. K., Oopkaup, K., Truu, J. & Mandar, R. (2014) Highly Diverse microbiota in Dental Root Canals in Cases of Apical Periodontitis (Data of Illumina Sequencing). Journal of Endodontics, Vol. 40, No. 11, 1778–1783.

Rocas, I. N. & Siqueira, J. F. (2012) Characterization of Microbiota of Root Canal–Treated Teeth with Posttreatment Disease. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, Vol. 50, No. 5, 1721–1724

Gomes, B., Pinheiro, E. T., Jacinto, R. C., Zaia, A. A., Ferraz, C. C. R., & Souza–Filbo, F. J. (2008). Microbial analysis of canals of root–filled teeth with periapical lesions using polymerase chain reaction. Journal of Endodontics, Vol. 34, No. 5, 537–540.

Abbaszadegan, A., Sahebi, S., Gholami, A., Delroba, A., Kiani, A., Iraji, A., et al. (2016). Time–dependent antibacterial effects of Aloe vera and Zataria multiflora plant essential oils compared to calcium hydroxide in teeth infected with Enterococcus faecalis. Journal of Investigative and Clinical Dentistry, Vol. 7, No. 1, 93–101.

Stuart, C. H., Schwartz, S. A., Beeson, T. J. & Owatz, C. B. (2006) Enterococcus faecalis: Its Role in Root Canal Treatment Failure and Current Concepts in Retreatment. Journal of Endodontics, Vol. 32, No. 2, 93–98.

Cristea, A. D., Popa, M., Chirifiuc, M. C., Marutescu, L., Lazar, V., Suciu, I., et al. (2015). The antimicrobial efficiency of endodontic irrigation solutions on bacterial biofilm. A literature review. Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry, Vol. 5, No. 4, 963–969.

AlShwaimi, E., Bogari, D., Ajaj, R., Al–Shahrani, S., Almas, K., & Majeed, A. (2016). In Vitro Antimicrobial Effectiveness of Root Canal Sealers against Enterococcus faecalis: A Systematic Review. Journal of Endodontics, Vol. 42, No. 11, 1588–1597.

Siqueira, J. F., & Lopes, H. P. (1999). Mechanisms of antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide: a critical review. International Endodontic Journal., Vol. 32, No. 5, 361–369

Lakusic, B., Ristic, M., Slavkovska, V., Stankovic, J. A., & Milenkovic, M. (2008). Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from Satureja horvatii Silic (Lamiaceae). Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society, Vol. 73, No. 7, 703–711.

Ojeda–Sana, A. M., van Baren, C. M., Elechosa, M. A., Juarez, M. A., & Moreno, S. (2013). New insights into antibacterial and antioxidant activities of rosemary essential oils and their main components. Food Control, Vol. 31, No.1, 189–195.

Koutsaviti, A., Georgiou, C., Milenkovic, M., Tzakou, O. (2015). Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oils from Different Parts of Cachrys cristata DC. from Greece. Records of Natural Products, Vol. 9, No. 3, 436–440.

Rouis–Soussi, L. S., El Ayeb–Zakhama, A., Mahjoub, A., Flamini, G., Ben Jannet, H., & Harzallah–Skhiri, F. (2014). Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from the Tunisian Allium nigrum L. Excli Journal., Vol. 13, 526–535.

Amor, I. L. B., Neffati, A., Ben Sgaier, M., Bhouri, W., Boubaker, J., Skandrani, I., et al. (2008). Antimicrobial activity of essential oils isolated from Phlomis crinita cav. Ssp mauritanica Munby. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society,Vol. 85, No. 9, 845–849.

Ahmad, A., & Viljoen, A. (2015). The in vitro antimicrobial activity of Cymbopogon essential oil (lemon grass) and its interaction with silver ions. Phytomedicine, Vol. 22, No. 6, 657–665.

Nikolić M., Marković T., Mojović M., Pejin B., Savić A., Perić T., Marković D., Stević T., Soković M. (2013): “Chemical composition and biological activity of Gaultheria procumbens L. essential oil“, Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 49:561-567.

Nikolic M., Glamoclija J., Ciric A., Markovic D., Markovic T. (2014a): “Antimicrobial and antiquroum sensing activity of Leptospermum petersonii Bailey essential oil against oral microorganisms”. 19th Congress of the Balkan Stomatological Society, 24-27th April, 2014. Belgrade, Serbia. Book of abstracts, pg. 211

Nikolić M., (2015): Doktorska teza pod nazivom “Biološka aktivnost etarskih ulja odabranih aromatičnih biljaka na vrste rodova Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Pseudomonas, Enterococcus i Candida izolovane iz usne duplje čoveka῎. Biološki fakultet, Univerzitet u Beogradu.

Nikolić M., Marković T., Marković D., Glamočlija J., Ćirić A., Smiljković M., Soković M. (2016): Antimicrobial activity of three Lamiaceae essential oils against common oral pathogens. Balkan Journal of Dental Medicine, 20(3): 160-167.

Nikolić, M., Smiljković, M., Marković, T., Ćirić, A., Glamočlija, J., Marković, D., Soković, M. (2016): Sensitivity of clinical isolates of Candida to essential oils from Burseraceae family. EXCLI Journal, 15:280-289.

Jaradat, N., Adwan, L., K'Aibni, S., Shraim, N., & Zaid, A. N. (2016). Chemical composition, anthelmintic, antibacterial and antioxidant effects of Thymus bovei essential oil. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Vol. 16, 418.

Subbiya, A., Padmavathy, K., & Mahalakshmi, K. (2013). Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of three gutta–percha solvents against Enterococcus faecalis. International Journal of Artificial Organs, Vol. 36, No. 5, 358–362.

Lysakowska, M. E., Sienkiewicz, M., Banaszek, K., & Sokolowski, J. (2015). The Sensitivity of Endodontic Enterococcus spp. Strains to Geranium Essential Oil. Molecules, Vol. 20, No. 12, 22881–22889

Chen, W., & Viljoen, A. M. (2010). Geraniol – A review of a commercially important fragrance material. South African Journal of Botany, Vol.76, No. 4, 643–651

Nikolić M., Ćirić A., Glamočlija J., Marković T., Marković D., Soković M. (2014) “Essential oil of Pelargonium graveolens L’Her shows antibacterial and antiquorum sensing activity in the nosocomial human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa“. VIII Conference on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of Southeast European Countries, 19-22nd, May, 2014, Durres, Albania. Book of abstracts, pg.195.

Jirovetz, L., Buchbauer, G., Schmidt, E., Stoyanova, A. S., Denkova, Z., Nikolova, R., et al. (2007). Purity, antimicrobial activities and olfactoric evaluations of geraniol /nerol and various of their derivatives. Journal of Essential Oil Research, Vol. 19, No. 3, 288–291.

Gallucci, M. N., Oliva, M., Casero, C., Dambolena, J., Luna, A., Zygadlo, J., et al. (2009). Antimicrobial combined action of terpenes against the food–borne microorganisms Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, Vol. 24, No. 6, 348–354.

Cardoso, N. N. R., Alviano, C. S., Blank, A. F., Romanos, M. T. V., Fonseca, B. B., Rozental., S., et al. (2016). Synergism Effect of the Essential Oil from Ocimum basilicum var. Maria Bonita and Its Major Components with Fluconazole and Its Influence on Ergosterol Biosynthesis. Evidence–Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine.Vol. 2016, Article ID 5647182

Ait–Ouazzou, A., Cherrat, L., Espina, L., Loran, S., Rota, C., & Pagan, R. (2011). The antimicrobial activity of hydrophobic essential oil constituents acting alone or in combined processes of food preservation. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, Vol. 12, No. 3, 320–329

Li, L., Li, Z. W., Yin, Z. Q., Wei, Q., Jia, R. Y., Zhou, L. J., et al. (2014). Antibacterial activity of leaf essential oil and its constituents from Cinnamomum longepaniculatum. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Vol. 7, No. 7, 1721–1727.

Sebei, K., Sakouhi, F., Herchi, W., Khouja, M. L., Boukhchina, S. (2015). Chemical composition and antibacterial activities of seven Eucalyptus species essential oils leaves. Biological Research, Vol. 48, No. 1, 7.

Marzouk, B., Fredj, M. B. H., Chraief, I., Mastouri, M., Boukef, K., & Marzouk, Z. (2008). Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Tunisian Mentha pulegium L. Journal of Food Agriculture & Environment, Vol. 6, No. 1, 78–82.

Mulyaningsih, S., Sporer, F., Zimmermann, S., Reichling, J., & Wink, M. (2010). Synergistic properties of the terpenoids aromadendrene and 1,8–cineole from the essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus against antibiotic–susceptible and antibiotic–resistant pathogens. Phytomedicine, Vol. 17, No. 13, 1061–1066.

Faleiro, M. L., Miguel, M. G., Ladeiro, F., Venancio, F., Tavares, R., Brito, J. C., et al. (2003). Antimicrobial activity of essential oils isolated from Portuguese endemic species of Thymus. Letters in Applied Microbiology, Vol.36, No. 1, 35–40.

Savelev, S., Okello, E., Perry, N. S. L., Wilkins, R. M., & Perry, E. K. (2003). Synergistic and antagonistic interactions of anticholinesterase terpenoids in Salvia lavandulaefolia essential oil. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, Vol. 75, No. 3, 661–668.

Ipek, E., Zeytinoglu, H., Okay, S., Tuylu, B. A., Kurkcuoglu, M., & Baser, K. H. C. (2005). Genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity of Origanum oil and carvacrol evaluated by Ames Salmonella / Microsomal test. Food Chemistry, Vol. 93, No. 3, 551–556.

Bassole, I. H. N., & Juliani, H. R. (2012). Essential Oils in Combination and Their Antimicrobial Properties. Molecules, Vol. 17, No. 4, 3989–4006.

Bhattia, H. N., Khan, S. S., Khan, A., Rani, M., Ahmad, V. U., & Choudhary, M. I. (2014). Biotransformation of monoterpenoids and their antimicrobial activities. Phytomedicine, Vol. 21, No. 12, 1597–1626.

Nikolić M., Glamočlija J., Ferreira C.F.R.I., Calhelha C.R., Fernandes A., Marković T., Marković D., Giweli A., Soković M. (2014b): “Chemical composition, antimicrobial, antioxidant and antitumor activity of Thymus serpyllum L., Thymus algeriensis Boiss. & Reut and Thymus vulgaris L. essential oils”, Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 53: 183-190.

Dorman, H. J. D., & Deans, S. G. (2000). Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils. Journal of Applied Microbiology, Vol. 88, No. 2, 308–316

de Jesus, I. C., Frazao, G. G. S., Blank, A. F., & Santana, L. (2016). Myrcia ovata Cambessedes essential oils: A proposal for a novel natural antimicrobial against foodborne bacteria. Microbial Pathogenesis, Vol. 99, 142–147. doi:1016 /j.micpath.2016.08.023

Moleyar, V. and Narasimham, P. (1986) Antifungal activity of some essential oil components. Food Microbiology Vol.3, 331–336.

Kurita, N., Miyaji, M., Kurane, R., Takahara, Y. and Ichimura, K. (1981) Antifungal activity of components of essential oils. Agriculture and Biological Chemistry Vol. 45, 945–952.

Uribe S, Ramirez J, Peña A. (1985) Effects betapinene on yeast membrane functions. J Bacteriol; Vol. 161, No. 3, 1195–1200.

Ilic, B. S., Kocic, B. D., Ciric, V. M., Cvetkovic, O. G., & Miladinovic, D. L. (2014). An In Vitro Synergistic Interaction of Combinations of Thymus glabrescens Essential Oil and Its Main Constituents with Chloramphenicol. Scientific World Journal, Vol. 2014.

Burt S. (2004): Essential oils: their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods—a review, International journal of food Microbiology, Vol. 94, No. 3, 223–253.

Bakkali, F., Averbeck, S., Averbeck, D., Idaomar, M. (2008): Biological effects of essential oils– a review, Food and chemical toxicology, Vol. 46, No. 2, 446– 475.

Hyldgaard M., Mygind T., Meyer R. L. (2012): Essential oils in food preservation: mode of action, synergies, and interactions with food matrix components. Front. Microbio. Vol. 3, No.12. doi: 10.3389 /fmic b.2012.00012.

Bošković M., Baltić M., Janjić J., Dokmanović M., Ivanović J., Marković T., Marković R. (2013). Antimikrobna aktivnost etarskih ulja na Salmonella spp. U mesu i proizvodima od mesa, Lekovite sirovine, Vol. 33, 39–52.

Delaquis, P. J., Stanich, K., Girard, B., & Mazza, G. (2002). Antimicrobial activity of individual and mixed fractions of dill, cilantro, coriander and eucalyptus essential oils. International Journal of Food Microbiology, Vol. 74, No. 1-2, 101-109.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Lekovite Sirovine

ISSN 0455-6224 (Print)
ISSN 2560-3965 (Online)

Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, the content on this site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.