Antifungal activity of aqueous and corn steep liquor extract of Ficus exasperata, Anonna muricata and Azadiractha indica

Temilola Ajoke Akinkugbe, Samuel Opeyemi Bankole, Paul Oluwatimilehin Ogunbamowo, Olamilekan Lanre Awotedu



This study investigated the activity of aqueous and corn steep liquor (CSL) extracts of Ficus exaperasta, Azadirachta indica and Annona muricata against Candida spp isolated from high vagina swab samples. Phytochemical screening of the plants was done using standard methods, the antifungal activity of the plant’s extracts and standard drugs were tested against isolates of Candida spp using the agar well diffusion method; the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) were also determined using microdilution standardized techniques. Phytochemical screening of the aqueous and CSL extracts of the plants revealed the presence of tannin, saponin, phenols and flavonoids. Among the five Candida strains, the zone of inhibition (ZI) produced by the plant extracts against C. kefyra shows a range of 6-28 mm; C. kruseia: 5-25 mm; C. albican: 0-18 mm; C. kefyrb: 0-27 mm; while, C. kruseib ZI: 0-18 mm. CSL extract had higher inhibitory action compared with aqueous extract while F. exasperata and A. muricata gave better antifungal activity against the tested Candida strains. The MIC of the aqueous and CSL extracts of the F. exasperata ranged between 6.25-12.5 mg/ml; A. muricata: 3.125-12.5mg/ml, while the aqueous and CSL extracts of A. indica was found to have no activity at all the tested concentrations against C. albican, C. kruseiaand C. kruseib, similar observation for the MFC. This study proved the antifungal efficacy of aqueous and CSL extracts of F. exasperata, A. muricata, and A. indica against isolates of Candida species which are usually implicated in candidiasis.


Candida species; Ficus exasperata; Annona muricata; Azadirachta indica; Corn Steep Liquor; Antifungal activity

Full Text:



Abdur Rahman, A., Samoylenko, V., Melissa, R., Rajnish, S., Surendra, K., Shabana, I., Babu, L. and Ilias, M. (2011). Antiparasitic and antimicrobial indolizidines from the leaves of Prosopisglandulosa var. glandulosa, Planta Medical.77(14): 1639-1643.

Abdus-Salaam, R.B., Adepoju, P.A., Olaleye O.N. and Adeoye, I.A. (2014). Studies on the antimicrobial effect of corn steep liquor on some diarrhoea causing organisms. African Journal of Biotechnology, 13(2): 332-335. DOI: 10.5897/AJB11.4162

Adebayo, E.A., Ishola, O.R., Taiwo, O.S., Majolagbe, O.N. and Adekeye, B.T. (2009). Evaluations of the methanol extract of Ficus exasperata stem bark, leaf and root for phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activities. African Journal of Plant Science, 3(12): 283-287.

Ajayi, O.B., Oluyege, J.O., Olalemi, O.M. and Ilesanmi, T.M. (2012). Nutritional composition, phytochemical screening and antimicrobial properties of the leaf of Ficus exasperata (Vahl). Asian Journal of Biological and Life Sciences, 1(3): 242-246.

Al-Hashemi, Z.S.S. and Hossain, M.A. (2016). Biological activities of different neem leaf crude extracts used locally in Ayurvedic medicine. Pacific Science Review A: Natural Science and Engineering, 18 (2016):128-131.

Asticcioli, S., Sacco, L., Daturi, R., Matti, C., Nucleo, E., Zara, F. and Pagani, L. (2009). Trends in frequency and in vitro antifungal susceptibility patterns of Candida isolates from women attending the STD out patient’s clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Northern Italy during the years 2002-2007. New. Microbiology. 32(2): 199-204.

Bader, T., Bodendorfer, B., Schroppel, K. and Morschhauser, J. (2003). Calcineurin is essential for virulence in Candida albicans. Infectious Immunity, 71: 5344-5354.

Bafor, E.E. and Igbinuwen, O. (2009). Acute toxicity studies of the leaf extract of Ficus exasperata on haematological parameters, body weight and body temperature. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 123:302-307.

Barua, D.R., Basavanna, J.M. and Varghese, R.K. (2017). Efficacy of Neem extract and three antimicrobial agents incorporated into tissue conditioner in inhibiting the growth of C. Albicans and S. Mutans. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, 11(5): ZC97-ZC101. doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2017/23784.9950

Calderone, R.A. and Fonzi W.A. 2(001). Virulence factors of Candida albicans. Trends Microbiology. 9: 327-334.

Choudhary, S., Dwivedi, A.K. and Singh, P. (2017). Antifungal activities of neem leaf extracts on the growth of Macrophomina phaseolina in vitro and its chemical characterization. IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, 11(4): 44-48.

Coleman, J.J., Okoli, I., Tegos, G.P., Holson, E.B., Wagner, F.F., Hamblin, M.R., & Mylonakis, E. (2010). Characterization of plant-derived saponin natural products against Candida albicans. ACS Chemical Biology, 5(3): 321–332.

Ellabib, M. S. and ElJariny, I. A. (2001). In vitro activity of 6 Antifungal agents on Candida species isolated as causative agents from vaginal and other clinical specimens. Saudi Journal of Medicine. 22(10): 860-863.

Enweani, I.B., Gugnani, H.C., Okobia, R. and Ojo, S.B. (2001). Effect of contraceptives on the prevalence of vaginal colonization with Candida species in Edo State, Nigeria. Rev. Iberoam. Microbiology. 18(4): 171-173.

Galle, L.C. and Gianinni, M.J.S.M. (2004). Prevalence and susceptibility of vaginal yeast. Journal of Brasileiro de Patologia e Medicina Laboratorial, 40(4):

Hamza, O.J, Matee, M.I., Moshi, M.J., Simon, E.N., Mugusi, F., Mikx, F.H., Helderman, W.H., Rijs, A.J., van der Ven, A.J., Verweij, P.E. (2008). Species distribution and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of oral yeast isolates from Tanzanian HIV-infected patients with primary and recurrent oropharyngeal candidiasis. BMC Microbiology, 12(8):135. doi: 10.1186/1471-2180-8-135.

Harborne, J.B. (1998). A guide to modern techniques of plant analysis. 3rd ed. London, New York: Chapman and Hall; Phytochemical methods.

Hutchinson, J.D. and Dalziel, J.M. (2011). Flora of west tropical Africa, London, Vol. 1 Part 2: 450-455.

Itelima, J.U., Nwokedi, V.C., Ogbonna, A.I., Nyam, M.A. (2016). Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity evaluation of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the leaf of Azadirachta indica Juss (neem) on some microorganisms. World Journal of Microbiology, 3(1): 56-60.

Iyanda-Joel, W.O., Omonigbehin, E.A., Iweala, E.E.J. and Chinedu, S.N. (2019). Antibacterial studies on fruit-skin and leaf extracts of Annona muricata in Ota, Nigeria. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 331 (2019) 012029

Kanthasamy, A., Subramanian, S and Govindasamy, S. (1989). Bactericidal and fungicidal effects of Prosopis juliflora alkaloidal fraction. Indian Drugs, 26:390 394.

Kareem, K., Kareem, S., Adeyemi, O., Omobolaji, J. and Egberongbe, R. (2010). In vitro antimicrobial properties of Bridelia ferruginea on some clinical isolates. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America.1 (3): 416-420.

Kothavade, R., Kura, M., Valand, A. and Panthaki, M. (2010). Candida tropicalis: its prevalence, pathogenicity and increasing resistance to fluconazole. Journal of Medical Microbiology. 59: 873- 880.

Latté, K.P. and Kolodziej, H. (2000). antifungal effects of hydrolysable tannins and related compounds on dermatophytes, mould fungi and yeasts. Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung C, 55(5-6): 467-472. DOI: 10.1515/znc-2000-5-625

Lawal, I.O., Borokini, T.I., Oyeleye, A., Williams, O.A. and Olayemi, J.O. (2012). Evaluation of extract of Ficus Exasperata Vahl root bark for antimicrobial activities against some strains of clinical isolates of bacterial and fungi. International Journal of Modern Botany, 2(1): 6-12. DOI: 10.5923/j.ijmb.20120201.02

Levinson, W. (2010). Review of medical microbiology and immunology. The McGraw-Hill Companies incorporation. Pg. 69-90.

Levy, B. (2014). Factors impacting on the problems of antibiotic resistance. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 49(1): 25-30.

Mahmoud, D.A., Hassanein, N.M., Youssef, K.A. and Abou Zeid, M.A. (2011). Antifungal activity of different neem leaf extracts and the nimonol against some important human pathogens. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 42(3): 1007-1016. doi: 10.1590/S1517-838220110003000021

Manvi, M. and Renu, S. (2004). Antimicrobial efficacy of Murraya koenigii (Linn) Spreng root extracts. Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources. 2(10): 44-51.

Mithun Pai, B.H., Rajesh, G., Shenoy, R. and Rao, A. (2016). Anti-microbial efficacy of soursop leaf extract (Annona muricata) on oral pathogens: an in-vitro study. Journal of Clinical & Diagnostic Research, 10(11): ZC01-ZC04. doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2016/18329.8762

Mohammed, H.A. and Omer, A.F.A. (2015). Antibacterial activity of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaf extract against bacterial pathogens in Sudan. American Journal of Research Communication, 3(5): 246-251.

Mohanty, S., Xess, I., Hasan, F., Kapil, A., Mittal, S. and Tolosa, J.E. (2007). Prevalence and susceptibility to fluconazole of Candida species causing Vulvovaginitis."Indian. J. Med. Res. 126: 216 -219.

Mondall, N.K., Mojumdar, A. Chatterje, S.K., Banerjee, A. Datta, J.K. Gupta, S. (2009). Antifungal activities and chemical characterization of neem leaf extracts on the growth of some selected fungal species in vitro culture medium. Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management, 13(1): 49-53.

Morey, A., de Souza, F.C., Santos, J.P., Pereira, C.A., Cardoso, J.D., Almeida, R.S., Costa, M.A., de Mello, J.C.P., Nakamura, C.V., Pinge-Filho, P., Yamauchi, L.M., Yamada-Ogatta, S.F. (2015). Antifungal activity of condensed tannins from Stryphnodendron adstringens: effect on Candida tropicalis growth and adhesion properties. Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, 17(4): DOI: 10.2174/1389201017666151223123712

Nahak, G. and Sahu, R.K. (2010). In vitro antioxidative acitivity of

Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach leaves by DPPH scavenging assay. Nature and Science, 8(4): 22-28.

Nimenibo-Uadia, R. (2017). Chemical composition and phytochemical screening of Ficus exasperata (Vahl) leaf. Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Applied Science Research, 6(1): 12-18.

Obasi, N.L., Egbuonu, A.C.C., Ukoha, P.O. and Ejikeme, P.M. (2010). Comparative phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of some solvent extracts of Samanea saman pods. African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry. 4(9): 206-212.

Olaiya, C.O., Idowu, P.A. and Karigidi, K.O. (2006). Antioxidative and antimicrobial activities of corn steep liquor anti-diabetic herb extracts, Annals of Food Science and Technology, 17(2): 272-279.

Patuwo, C.M., Pasetto, S., Young, K., Murata, R.M. (2014). Antifungal activity of flavonoids against Candida albicans. Conference: AADR Annual Meeting & Exhibition.

Pfaller, M. A. and Diekema, D. J. (2007). Epidemiology of invasive candidiasis: a persistent public health problem." Clinical Microbiology Review. 20(1): 133-63.

Pierce, G.E. (2005). Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and device-related nosocomial infections: implications, trends, and potential approaches for control. Journal of Industrial Microbiology Biotechnology. 32, 309-318.

Pinto, E., Vale-Silva, L., Cavaleiro, C. and Salgueiro, L. (2009). antifungal activity of the clove essential oil from Syzygium aromaticum on Candida, Aspargillus and Dermatophyte species. Journal of Medical Microbiology. 58:1454-1462.

Prusti, A., Mishea, S., Sahoo, S. and Mishea, S. (2008). Antibacterial activity of some Indian medicinal plants. Ethanobotanical leaflets. 12:227-228.

Roopashree, T.S., Dang, R., Rani, S.R.H. and Narendra, C. (2008). Antibacterial activity of anti-psoriatic herbs: Cassia tora, Momordica charantia and Calendula officinalis. International Journal of Applied Resources Natural Products, 1(3): 20-28.

Salazar-Aranda, R., Granados-Guzmán, G., Pérez-Meseguer, J., González, G.M., & de Torres, N.W. (2015). Activity of polyphenolic compounds against Candida glabrata. Molecules, 20(10): 17903–17912.

Shah, S., Nasreen, S. and Sheikh, P.A. (2006). Cultural and morphological characterization of Trichoderma spp. associated with green mold disease of Pleurotus spp. in Kashmir. Research Journal of Microbiology, 7: 139-144. Doi:10.3923/jm.2012.139.144

Sonibare, M.O., Isiaka, A.O., Taruka, M.W., Williams, N.S., Soladoye, M. and Emmanuel, O. (2006). Constituents of Ficus exasperata leaves. Natural product communications 23-26.

Takon, I., Antai, S. P. and Okon, P. (2013). In-vitro evaluation of antibacterial activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Ficus exasperata VAHL (Moraceae) leaves. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology Research, 3 (4):7-12.

Tsai, P.W., Chen, Y.T., Hsu, P.C. and Lan, C.Y. (2013). Study of Candida albicans and its Interactions with the host: a mini review. BioMedicine 3, 51-64.

Tsuzuki, J.K., Svidzinski, T.I.E., Shinobu, C.S., Silva, L.F.A. Rodrigues-Filho, E., CortezI, D.A.G. Ferreira, I.C.P. (2007). Antifungal activity of the extracts and saponins from Sapindus saponaria L. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 79(4):

Vijayameena, C., Subhashini, G., Loganayagi, M. and Ramesh, B. (2013). Phytochemical screening and assessment of antibacterial activity for the bioactive compounds in Annona muricata. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 2(1): 1-8

Yang, C.R., Zhang, Y., Jacob, M.R., Khan, S.I., Zhang, Y.J., & Li, X.C. (2006). Antifungal activity of C-27 steroidal saponins. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 50(5): 1710-1714.

Yang, L., Liu, X., Zhuang, X., Feng, X., Zhong, L. and Ma, T. (2018). Antifungal effects of saponin extract from rhizomes of Dioscorea panthaica Prain et Burk against Candida albicans. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2018, Article ID 6095307,


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Temilola Ajoke Akinkugbe, Samuel Opeyemi Bankole, Paul Oluwatimilehin Ogunbamowo, Olamilekan Lanre Awotedu

ISSN 0455-6224 (Print)
ISSN 2560-3965 (Online)

Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, the content on this site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.