Evaluation of antioxidant activities and haematological effects of Asystasia gangetica leaf extract in monosodium glutamate-treated rats

Robert Ikechukwu Uroko, Amarachi Agbafor, Simeon Ikechukwu Egba, Chinedu Paulinus Nwuke, Sharon Nnenne Kalu-Kalu

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5937/leksir2141005U


This study evaluated antioxidant activities and haematological effects of methanol extract of Asystasia gangetica leaves (MEAG) on monosodium glutamate (MSG) treated rats. Forty-two male Wistar rats randomly distributed into 7 groups (n=6) were used for the study. Groups 1-3 were the normal control, MSG control, and positive control respectively whereas groups 4-5 were the extract controls, and groups 6-7 were the curative groups. All the treatments were administered orally and standard analytical methods were used for analyses. The results showed that MEAG is a rich antioxidants source and contains phenolics, flavonoids and beta-carotene in high concentrations. The extract showed concentration-dependent increases in ferric reducing antioxidant power, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and nitric oxide radicals scavenging activities but relatively lower than their respective controls. The MSG administration caused significant (P<0.05) reductions in the glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities but significantly (P<0.05) increased the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in the MSG control rats. The MSG administration also caused significant (P<0.05) reductions in the haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts of the MSG control relative to the normal control. Treatment with MEAG significantly elevated GPx, SOD, and CAT activities; haematological indices and significantly reduced MDA levels in the extract controls, and curative groups treated with a high dose of MSG. These findings show that methanol extract of A. gangetica leaves is rich in antioxidants that could prevent oxidative stress and improves the haematological profile of MSG treated rats.


Asystasia gangetica; monosodium glutamate; antioxidant activities; haematological profile; lipid peroxidation.

Full Text:



Aebi, H. (1983). Catalase, in H. Bergmeyer (ed.), Methods of enzymatic

analysis, Verlag Chemie, Weinhem, pp. 273–285.

Akah, P., Ezike, A., Nwafor, S., Okoli, C. and Enwerem, N. (2003). Evaluation

of the anti-asthmatic property of Asystasia gangetica leaf extracts, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 89(1): 25–36.

Al-Harbi, M. S., El-Shenawy, N. S. and Al-Weail, N. O. S. (2014). Effect of

monosodium glutamate on oxidative damage in male mice: Modulatory

role of vitamin C, 36(4): 11.

Dacie, J. V. and Lewis, S. M. (1991). Practical haematology, Churchill

Livingstone, Edinburgh; New York. OCLC: 23733082.

El Kotb, S. M., El-ghazouly, D. E.-s. and Ameen, O. (2020). The potential

cytoprotective effect of vitamin C and vitamin E on monosodium

glutamate-induced testicular toxicity in rats, Alexandria Journal of

Medicine 56(1): 134–147.

Hatano, T., Kagawa, H., Yasuhara, T. and Okuda, T. (1988). Two new

flavonoids and other constituents in licorice root. Their relative astringency and radical scavenging effects., Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 36(6): 2090–2097.

Jaeger, R. and Cuny, E. (2016). Terpenoids with special pharmacological

significance: A review, Natural Product Communications

(9): 1934578X1601100.

Johari, M. A. and Khong, H. Y. (2019). Total phenolic content and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Pereskia bleo, Advances in Pharmacological Sciences 2019: 1–4.

Kessler, M., Ubeaud, G. and Jung, L. (2010). Anti- and pro-oxidant activity of rutin and quercetin derivatives, Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 55(1): 131–142.

Khalaf, H. A. and Arafat, E. A. (2015). Effect of different doses of monosodium glutamate on the thyroid follicular cells of adult male albino

rats: a histological study, International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology 8(12): 15498–15510.

Marcocci, L., Maguire, J., Droylefaix, M. and Packer, L. (1994). The nitric

oxide-scavenging properties of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 201(2): 748–755.

Mugabo, P. and Raji, I. A. (2013). Effects of aqueous leaf extract of Asystasia gangetica on the blood pressure and heart rate in male spontaneously hypertensive Wistar rats, BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

(1): 283.

Nagata, M. and Yamashita, I. (1992). Simple method for simultaneous

determination of chlorophyll and carotenoids in tomato fruit., NIPPON

Nippon Shokuhin Kogyo Gakkaishi 39(10): 925–928.

Omaye, S. T., David Turnbull, J. and Sauberlich, H. E. (1979). [1] Selected

methods for the determination of ascorbic acid in animal cells, tissues,

and fluids, Methods in Enzymology, Vol. 62, Elsevier, pp. 3–11.

Omonije, O. O., Saidu, A. N. and Muhammad, H. L. (2020). Antioxidant and

hypolipidemic effects of methanolic root extract of Chromolaena odorata in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, Iranian Journal of Toxicology 14(2): 63–70.

Sama, K., Sivaraj, R. and Salam, H. A. (2013). Pharmacognostical and

phytochemical screening of Asystasia gangetica (Chinese violet), p. 3.

Shukry, M., El-Shehawi, A. M., El-Kholy, W. M., Elsisy, R. A., Hamoda, H. S.,

Tohamy, H. G., Abumandour, M. M. and Farrag, F. A. (2020). Ameliorative

effect of graviola (Annona muricata) on mono sodium glutamate-induced

hepatic injury in rats: Antioxidant, apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, lipogenesis markers, and histopathological studies, Animals 10(11): 1996.

Singh, K., Sharma, J., Kaur, A. and Ahluwalia, P. (2011). Alteration upon

oral ingestion of monosodium glutamate in various lipid and lipoprotein

fractions in serum of adult male rat, Journal of Life Sciences 3(1): 17–21.

Somanathan, S., Ranganayakulu, D. and Jayaveera, K. (2015). In-vtiro

antioxidant activities of Asystasia gangetica leaf extract, World journal of

pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences 4(2): 1228–1239.

Ugur Calis, I., Turgut Cosan, D., Saydam, F., Kerem Kolac, U., Soyocak, A.,

Kurt, H., Veysi Gunes, H., Sahinturk, V., Sahin Mutlu, F., Ozdemir Koroglu,

Z. and Degirmenci, I. (2016). The effects of monosodium glutamate

and tannic acid on adult rats, Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal

(10): e37912.

Ursini, F., Maiorino, M. and Gregolin, C. (1985). The selenoenzyme phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase, Biochimica et Biophysica

Acta (BBA) - General Subjects 839(1): 62–70.

Wallin, B., Rosengren, B., Shertzer, H. and Camejo, G. (1993). Lipoprotein

oxidation and measurement of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances

formation in a single microtiter plate: its use for evaluation of antioxidants, Analytical Biochemistry 208(1): 10–15.

Xin, Z., Waterman, D., Hemken, R. and Harmon, R. (1991). Effects of

copper status on neutrophil function, superoxide dismutase, and copper

distribution in steers, Journal of Dairy Science 74(9): 3078–3085.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Robert Ikechukwu Uroko, Amarachi Agbafor, Simeon Ikechukwu Egba, Chinedu Paulinus Nwuke, Sharon Nnenne Kalu-Kalu

ISSN 0455-6224 (Print)
ISSN 2560-3965 (Online)

Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, the content on this site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.