Microwave-assisted extraction of essential oil from ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.)

Zorica Drinić, Miloš Jovanović, Dejan Pljevljakušić, Nada Ćujić-Nikolić, Dubravka Bigović, Katarina Šavikin

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5937/leksir2141022D


Comparison between conventional and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation at different power levels has been applied for the extraction of essential oil from Zingiber officinale Rosc. rhizome. In addition to the collected essential oils, as the main products, hydrolats were also collected, as valuable by-products from both extraction techniques. A comparison of two applied techniques was done in terms of extraction time, extraction yield, the chemical composition of essential oils and hydrolats, and environmental impact. Microwave-assisted hydrodistillation achieved a higher extraction yield (1.70, 1.70, and 1.85 % for power levels of 180, 360, and 600 W, respectively) compared to hydrodistillation (1.50 %). Furthermore, distillation time related to the energy consumption has been reduced from 144 min and 1.44 kWh for conventional hydrodistillation to 37, 32, 27 min and 0.11, 0.19, 0.27 kWh for power levels of 180, 360, and 600 W, respectively. Content of α-zingiberene in essential oil and hydrolat obtained by hydrodistillation was 29.89 and 6.87 %, while content of α-zingiberene in essential oils and hydrolats obtained by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation was higher yielding the amounts of 34.12, 34.43, and 42.00 % and 18.70, 22.60, and 32.92 % for power levels of 180, 360, and 600 W, respectively. Microwave-assisted hydrodistillation has proven to be promising technique for the isolation of ginger’s essential oil regarding improved yield, reduced time and energy requirements, as well CO2 emissions while maintains oil quality.


hydrosol; essential oil; volatile compounds; ginger; HD; MAHD

Full Text:



Adams, R. P. (2007). Identification of essential oil components by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy, Allured Publishing Corporation.

Drinić, Z., Pljevljakušić, D., Zivković, J., Bigović D. and Šavikin, K. (2020). Microwave-assisted extraction of O. vulgare L. spp. hirtum essential oil: Comparison with conventional hydro-distillation, Food and Bioproducts Processing 120: 158-165. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbp.2020.01.011

Ferhat, M.A., Chemat, F., Meklati, B.Y. and Smadja, J. (2006). Animproved microwave clevenger apparatus for distillation of essential oils from orange peel, Journal of Chromatography A 1112(1-2): 121-126. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2005.12.030

Ferhat, M.A., Tigrine-Kordjani, N., Chemat, S., Meklati, B.Y. and Chemat, F. (2007). Rapid extraction of volatile compoundsusing a new simultaneous microwave distillation: solventextraction device, Chromatographia 65: 217-222. https://doi.org/10.1365/s10337-006-0130-5

Filly, A., Fernandez, X., Minuti, M., Visinoni, F., Cravotto, G. and Chemat, F. (2014). Solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from aromatic herbs: from laboratory to pilot and industrial scale, Food Chemistry 150: 193-198. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.10.139

Golmakani, M.T. and Rezaei K. (2008). Comparison of microwave-assisted hydrodistillation with the traditional hydrodistillation method in the extractionof essential oils from Thymus vulgaris L., Food Chemistry 109(4): 925-930. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.12.084

Govindarajan, V.S. (1982). Ginger--chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation: part 1, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 17(1): 1-96. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398209527343

Hochmuth, D. (2006). Massfinder 3: Softwarefor GC/MS Interpretation and Presentation, Mass Spectral Library Administration, Hamburg, Germany.

Kamaliroosta, Z., Kamaliroosta, L. and Elhamirad, A. (2013). Isolation and identification of ginger essential oil, Journal of Food Biosciences and Technology 3: 73-80.

Karakaya, S., El, S.N., Karagozlu, N. Sahin, S., Sumnu, G. and Bayramoglu, B. (2014). Microwave-assisted hydrodistillation of essential oil from rosemary, Journal of Food Science and Technology 51: 1056-1065. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-0610-y

Paolini, J., Leandrib, C., Desjobert, J., Barbonia, T. and Costa, J. (2008). Comparison of liquid–liquid extraction with head space methods for the characterization of volatile fractions of commercial hydrolats from typically Mediterranean species, Journal of Chromatography A 1193: 37-49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2008.04.021

Ph. Jug. IV (1984). Pharmacopoea Jugoslavica, 4th edn, Federal Institute of Public Health, Belgrade, Yugoslavia.

Ph.Eur.10.0. (2019). European Pharmacopoeia 10.0., Council of Europe, Strasbourg Cedex, France.

Radivojac, A., Bera, O., Micić, D., Ðurović, S., Zeković, Z., Blagojević, S. and Pavlić B. (2020). Conventional versus microwave-assisted hydrodistillation of sage herbal dust: Kinetics modeling and physico-chemical properties of essential oil, Food and Bioproducts Processing 123: 90-101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbp.2020.06.015

Ravi Kiran, C., Chakka, A.K., Padmakumari Amma, K.P., Nirmala Menon, A., Sree Kumar, M.M. and Venugopalan, V.V. (2013). Essential oil composition of fresh ginger cultivars from North-East India, Journal of Essential Oil Research 25(5): 380-387. https://doi.org/10.1080/10412905.2013.796496

Rezvanpanah, S., Rezaei, K., Razavi, S.H. and Moini, S. (2008). Use of Microwave-assisted hydrodistillation to extract the essentialoils from

Satureja hortensis and Satureja montana, Food Science and Technology Research 14: 311-314. https://doi.org/10.3136/fstr.14.311

Shahani, S., Monsef-Esfahani, H.R., Hajiaghaee, R. and Gohari, A.R. (2011). Chemical composition of essential oil and hydrolat of Geum iranicum Khatamaz, Journal of Essential Oil Research 23: 29-33. https://doi.org/10.1080/10412905.2011.9712278

Stoyanova, A., Konakchiev, A., Damyanova, S., Stoilova, I. and Suu, P.T. (2006). Composition and antimicrobial activity of ginger essential oil from Vietnam, Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants 9(1): 93-98. https://doi.org/10.1080/0972060X.2006.10643478

Talebi, M., İlgün, S., Ebrahimi, V., Talebi, M., Farkhondeh, T., Ebrahimi, H. and Samarghandian, S. (2021). Zingiber officinale ameliorates Alzheimer's disease and Cognitive Impairments: Lessons from preclinical studies, Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy 133: 111088. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.111088

Tóth, B., Lantos, T., Hegyi, P., Viola, R., Vasas, A., Benkő, R., Gyöngyi, Z., Vincze, Á., Csécsei, P., Mikó, A., Hegyi, D., Szentesi, A., Matuz, M. and Csupor, D. (2018). Ginger (Zingiber officinale): An alternative for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. A meta-analysis, Phytomedicine 50: 8-18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2018.09.007

Veggi, P.C., Martinez, J. and Meireles, M.A. (2013). Fundamentals of microwave extraction, in Chemat, F. and Cravotto, G. (eds), Microwave-Assisted Extraction for Bioactive Compounds: Theory and Practice, Springer, Boston, MA, pp. 15-52. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-4830-3_2

Vinatoru, M., Mason, T.J. and Calinescu, I. (2017). Ultrasonically Assisted Extraction (UAE) and Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE) of Functional Compounds from Plant Materials, Trends in Analytical Chemistry 97: 159-178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trac.2017.09.002


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Zorica Drinić, Miloš Jovanović, Dejan Pljevljakušić, Nada Ćujić-Nikolić, Dubravka Bigović, Katarina Šavikin

ISSN 0455-6224 (Print)
ISSN 2560-3965 (Online)

Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, the content on this site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.